DNA transcription

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Cell membrane: a fluid-mosaic membrane that separates the cell interior from the outside world and controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell

cytoplasm: a gel-like material consisting mostly of water that contains dissolved materials and creates the chemical environmentin which the other cell structures work

Nucleus: the command centre of the cell that contains the DNA blueprints for making proteins and is surrounded by a double membrane to protect the DNA from potentially damaging byproducts of biochemical reactions

Nuclear pores: pores in the nuclear membrane large enough to allow macromolecules to enter and ribosomes to leave the nucleus

Chromatin: uncoiled chromosomes (DNA)

Nucleolus: a specialized area of chromatin inside the nucleus responsible for producing ribosomes.

Ribosome: tiny two-part structures found throughout the cytoplasm that help put together proteins

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): a system of flattened membrane-bound sacs and tubes continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope that has two types of membrane: rough ER, which is studded with ribosomes and synthesizes proteins, and smooth ER, which synthesizes phospholipids and packages macromolecules in vesicles for transport to other parts of the cell

Golgi apparatus: a stack of flattened membrane-bound sacs that receive vesicles from the ER, contain enzymes for modifying proteins and lipids, package finished products into vesicles for transport to the cell membrane (for secretion through exocytosis) and within the cell as lysosomes

Mitochondrion: the powerhouse of the cell where organic molecules, usually carbohydrates, are broken down inside a double membrane to release energy and transfer it to ATP
,br>lysosome: a membrane-bound vesicle filled with digestive enzymes that can break down worn-out cell components or materials brought into the cell through endocytosis

Peroxisome: a membrane-bound vesicle containing enzymes that break down lipids and toxic waste products, such as alcohol

Centrosome: an organelle located near the nucleus that organizes the cell’s microtubules, contains a pair of centrioles (made up of microtubules), and helps to organize the even distribution of cell components when cells divide vesicle a small membrane-bound transport sac

Vacuole: a large membrane-bound, fluid-filled sac for the temporary storage of food, water, or waste products

Cytoskeleton a network of three kinds of interconnected fibres that maintain cell shape and allow for movement of cell parts: actin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.

Courtesy:McGrawHill Ryerson,Biology 11.