Step 1: Find valence e- for all atoms. Add them together.

C-4

O-6

Cl-7×2=14

Total=24

Step2: Find octet e- for each atom and add them together.

C-8O-8

Cl-8×2=16

Total=32

Step3: Subtract step 1 total from step 2. This step gives you bonding e-.

32-24=8e-

Step 4: Find number of bonds by diving the number in step 3 by 2(because each bond is made of 2 e-)

8e-/2= 4 bond pairs

Step 5: Find the number of nonbonding (lone pairs) e-. Subtract step 3 number from step 1.

24-8= 16e-=8 lone pairs

Use information from step 4 and 5 to draw the lewis structure.

Put atom with lowest electro negativity in the center. Arrange the remaining atoms around it. Finally put the bond pairs and lone pairs of electrons on the atoms.

O has 6 valance electrons so it needs two bonds to fill its octet while Cl has 7 and only needs one bond.

## Lewis dot structure of CO_{}Cl_{2}

Alternatively a dot method can be used to draw the lewis structure of COCl_{2}.

Calculate the total valence electrons in COCl_{2} molecule.

C=4,O=6,Cl=2x7=14

Total=24

Put carbon in the center.

Put a pair of electrons connecting the side atom with central atom.Pur remaining electrons on the side atoms.Move electrons from side atoms until both elements gets 8 electrons

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