IUPAC Naming of Organic compounds

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Rules to name organic compounds

General Rules:

Most of the organic compounds follow the pattern below for their naming

Prefix+root+suffix

Prefix: Branch

Root: Number of carbons in the main chain

Suffix : Type of Organic compound.( alkane, alkene, alcohol etc.)

 

 

Root names for organic compounds:

Number of carbon atoms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Root -meth- -eth- -prop- -but -pent- -hex- -hept- -oct- -non- -dec-

Functional group and suffix for organic compunds

 
Type of compound Functional group Suffix Example
Alkane None -ane Propane
Alkene -C=C- -ene 2-pentene
Alkyne -C≡C- -yne 3-Hexyne
Alcohol -OH -ol 2-Pentanol
Ether -C-O-C- -oxy Methoxy ethane
Alkyl Halide -Cl,-Br,-I,-F -chloro,-bromo 2-chloropropane
Aldehyde -C=O -al Butanal
Ketone -C=O -one 2-Butanone
Carboxylic acid -COOH -oic acid Butanoic acid
Ester -COO- -oate Methyl butanoate
Amine -NH2 -amine 2-Propanamine
Amide -CONH2 -amide Propanaimde

Examples:

1. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3

Prefix: None;
Root:But
Suffix: ane
Name: Butane

2.CH4
Prefix:None
Root:Meth
Suffix:ane
Name: Methane

3. CH3-CH2-OH

Prefix:None
Root: Eth
Suffix: Ol
Name: ethanol

4.CH3-CH=CH2
Prefix:none
Root:Prop
Suffix:ene
Name:Propene

5.CH3-CH2-CH2-C≡CH
Prefix:None
Root:Pent
Suffix:yne
Name:1-Pentyne

6.CH3-CH2-CH2-OH
Prfix:None
Root:Prop
Suffix:Ol
Name:1-Propanol